PROFILES: Countries that make up the Balkan region at a glance

Uganda’s President Yoweri Museveni on July 31 opened up the East African country’s trade hub in Belgrade, Serbia.

According to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Exports and Industrialization, the trade hub is meant to serve the entire Balkans region.

The Balkans comprise several countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

Below we give brief profiles of each of the above countries.


Serbia is the homeland of tennis legend Novak Djokovic and basketball sensation Nikola Jović.

Serbs are mostly Eastern Orthodox Christians and their temple named Temple of Sveti Sava (Hram Svetog Save) is the biggest Orthodox Church in Europe. They value their religion very much, which has bred honesty among the citizens.

Led by President Aleksandar Vučić, the Serbs are hospitable people. Their population as of 2021 records stands at 6.834 million.


Albania is a small, mountainous country inhabited by 2.8 million people under the leadership of President Bajram Begaj. The country has a Muslim majority with about 17% of the population being Christians who are divided between the Orthodox and smaller Catholic denominations. The capital city is based at Tirana.


Bosnia-Herzegovina is an independent state partially under international oversight under the terms of the 1995 Dayton Peace Accords. These Accords are the ones which were drawn at the end of the 1992-95 Bosnian war and the break-up of Yugoslavia.

With a population of 3.4 million people, the 51,129sq km country is headed by the Chairwoman of the Presidency, Zeljka Cvijanovic

Its three main communities include Bosniak Muslims, Croats and Serbs with Sarajevo as the capital city.

It has two autonomous entities namely; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, and the Brcko District led by its own local government. These come together under a federal government with a rotating presidency.


Located in the east of the Balkans, Bulgaria has a population of 6.7 million people under the leadership of President Rumen Radev.

It is predominantly a Slavonic-speaking, Orthodox Christian country. Its capital city is Sofia. The country has an area of 110,913 sq km.


Croatia which became independent in 1991 is currently led by President Zoran Milanovic.

It has a population of 3.8 million people and occupies an area of 56,594 sq km. The capital city of Croatia is Zagreb and it joined the European Union member states in 2013.


Montenegro, which means “Black Mountain”, borders Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Serbia’s breakaway province of Kosovo and Albania. Led by President Jakov Mliatovic, Montenegro has a population of 620,700 who occupy an area of 13,812 sq km with the Capital being Podgorica.


With a population of 1.8 million people, North Macedonia has an area of 25,713 sq km with the capital at Skopje. The current president is Stevo Pendarovski.


This is the largest of the Balkan countries which stretches to at least 238,397 sq km with a population of 19 million people. Led by President Klaus Iohannis, Romania’s capital is Bucharest.

SLOVENIA Parts of Slovenia are considered to be within the Balkans region. The country which is led by President Natasa Pirc Musar, with a Capital at Ljubljana has a population of 2.1 million people occupying an area of 20,271 sq km. The languages spoken there include Slovene, Italian and Hungarian.  

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